The Library and Information Center of National Institute of Development Administration has established NIDA Wisdom Repository for storing, collecting and providing digital information resources via the DSpace database management system. In terms of cataloguing the metadata, meeting international standards, the digital information resources are catalogued by using the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). The preparation is also arranged under the policy of Wisdom Repository. For continually long-term digital information resources management, it is necessary to preserve digital information resources, consisting of data management and maintenance. The Library and Information Center hence, has developed a digital information resources preservation plan which covers various operations ranging from digital information resources preservation, data security, digital information resources operation policy, operational procedures, standards to future operational direction. The digital information resources preservation plan includes these 13 aspects as follows:
The main goals of Wisdom Repository are digital information resources preservation and long-term access to information resources, all of which include the following objectives:
- Determine standards and best practices adopting the OAIS framework (Open Archival Information System).
- Enhance knowledge and understanding among the personnel of Wisdom Repository and for those who are involved in Wisdom Repository management and administration.
- Determine the procedures to support and promote the existing and future digital information resources.
- Determine the guidelines for choosing an appropriate system for managing digital information resources.
- Prepare for access and the rights to use of digital information resources.
- Review and evaluate the digital information resources preservation plan in alignment with technological changes, types of resources, and user needs.
- Maintain the digital information resources relevant to the Institute.
- Enhance the efficiency of digital information resources management and administration of Wisdom Repository.
Digital Information resources include the resources that are original digitized files and the files that are converted into digitized media in Wisdom Repository. Types of digital information resources that are provided storage service in Wisdom Repository must be the works created by National Institute of Development Administration’s faculty members, students, and personnel only.
3. Challenge Issues
The digital information resources preservation involves not only the evaluation of management technology (i.e., hardware, software, standards, file formats), but also several issues to consider as follows:
- The file digitization must be accurate, clear and complete, and the digitized content must be kept the same as the content in the manuscript.
- The modified files provided in the PDF file format can be converted into other file formats, such as .text, .jpg, .png, and .tif, for more versatility.
- Digital information resources must be protected and secured by means of preservation so that they can be used for a long time. This results from the fact that, for example, digital data is at risk of being deleted; the data cannot be displayed; or the data may be attacked by malware. Digital information resources, consequently, must be checked regularly so that if lost, the resources can be restored due to available backups. The preservation also includes considering a version or model that can open the data in the future.
- Access to the content of digital information resources includes presentation of information resources available in Wisdom Repository, including identification of permanent storage, storage security system, and file-reading methods. Wisdom Repository has the main objective of digital information resources presentation and service under Creative Commons, which allows users to access and use the resources without modifying the content. Also, the service users cannot use the resources for commercial purposes, duplication, and dissemination without written permission. The users must accept the conditions before downloading the resources at every single time when they find the text box with the message stating “All the information resources in Wisdom Repository are used only for teaching, learning and research. Any subsequent use shall require the source to be cited. Do not modify and duplicate the content. The user is not permitted to use the resources for commercial purposes in any case.”.
- Regarding standards for digitizing information resources, there are expert consultants, librarians and knowledgeable staff who have been well trained according to the practice guidelines for digitizing information resources that meet required standards.
- The storage space for digital information resources needs to be sufficient and can support the amount of digital information resources that continuously increases in the future.
- An incomplete description of the metadata of each digital file may affect access to information resources. Therefore, the operator must take a thorough action and understand each resource and can describe the characteristics of digital information resources in details, all of which are important for long-term preservation.
4. Criteria and Priority for Resources Preservation
Information resources that have been selected, collected, and processed through the preservation and storage procedures in Wisdom Repository are of various types, and each of which is important but needs to be prioritized despite an urgent requirement. Every type must be preserved for at least 10 years’ use; the theses of National Institute of Development Administration must be stored, digitized, and completely catalogued in the metadata as metadata including all subjects because those theses are the main information resources of Wisdom Repository, most of which are in demand and are of the highest use rate.
5. Types of Digital Information Resources
The information resources that have been preserved by Wisdom Repository are theses and dissertations of the students who graduate from National Institute of Development Administration. The resources are preserved by the i-Thesis management system and Wisdom Repository is granted permission to disseminate them in digital formats. The content must not violate intellectual property rights, patents, and copyrights of others; the content must not violate ethical principles, such as academic ethics, human research ethics, research ethics, professional code of conduct, etc.; and the content must not violate the principles of human rights and Personal Data Protection Act, B.E. 2562.
6. Roles and Responsibilities
The following are the key persons responsible for the information resources preservation plan.
- Administrators: Director of the Library and Information Center and Heads of the divisions involved in, overall, determining policies and the information resources preservation plan of the Center.
- Wisdom Repository’s personnel: librarians, information specialists, and staff who carry out policies into practice, take charge of the procedures, evaluate the preservation results, and summarize the results to present the administrators.
7. Factors and Elements of Digital Information Resources Preservation
- Relevant operators involved in digital information resources preservation, both at the professional and operational levels, must take training and enhance their skills with knowledge and understanding in digital information resources preservation.
- Budgets and resources used for managing the digital information resources preservation must be sufficient and granted continuously.
- A good management structure system includes Information Technology systems, hardware, software, backups, as well as preparation for storage and data removal.
8. Preservation and Quality Control
The digital information resources preservation process of Wisdom Repository consists of the following three procedures.
- Digitization is the conversion of the original data that are not digitized to be a in form of digital format. In case a publication is modified by using a scanner and that the file is modified using Acrobat, the data may be modified by means of an image editing program, for example Photoshop, for a clear, easy-to-read digital file of which the data quality meets the required standard; in case of the PDF file, a bookmark and the Institute Logo must be created.
- Information Management is conducted by inputting the metadata to describe various details of the stored resources. The metadata is an important tool for accessing data, searching information, and managing the stored information in Wisdom Repository.
- Information Access enables the user to access data online, via the website of Wisdom Repository.
9. Preservation by the OAIS Model (Open Archival Information System)
Wisdom Repository has adopted the OAIS Reference Model as a conceptual framework for the standardized digital information resources preservation. The framework consists of the following aspects.
- The process of preparing various digital materials comprising digital files and metadata into Wisdom Repository
- Importing the file into Wisdom Repository, processed by using the Submission Information Package for checking process and quality control, such as checking a file type created by AIP (Archive Information Package), creating metadata by digital materials, and adapting the AIP for the further permanent storage system
- Metadata consisting of datasets describing digital information resources whereby Wisdom Repository catalogues metadata in accordance with international standards using Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) for describing the characteristics of the digital information resources
- Wisdom Repository’s personnel in charge of policy development, standardized operation, and other work systems, such as access control and service for the user of Wisdom Repository
- Access which provides the user with easy and convenient access to search needed resources and to successfully access those resources, for instance, the management of Wisdom Repository Search Page using the OAIS system in which Dissertation Information Package (DIP) is created, considered for responding to the user needs
10. Standards for Digital Information Resources Preservation
The information resources that are stored and served in Wisdom Repository must be of a File Format and a digital PDF file type (PDF-Portable Document Format) only, in order to obtain the file which matches the original, is accurate and able to be cited in accordance with academic principles. The information resources may be originally created in form of a digital file or may be modified to become digitized. PDF is a very popular, widely used file format that can be read by a file reader (PDF Reader) or a common web browser, such as Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, etc. It is also the file format suitable for use, storage, and reuse, in a sustainably long term, so this reduces the problem of out-of-date digital file. In addition, Wisdom Repository’s personnel study and keep update with technological changes, provide appropriate service, prepare for an information transfer plan, and modify a file to various file formats for future use. The service user and the work owner can be ensured of file accessibility in future despite out-of-date digital files.
Wisdom Repository’s personnel, including librarians, information specialists, and staff, are supported and encouraged to improve and strengthen their practical skills in various aspects, appropriately, such as training and knowledge transfer of digital information resources management and preservation including, for example, managing Wisdom Repository’ work system, managing a file as required standards, and cataloguing metadata according to international standards, and cataloguing information resources using Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI).
12. Evaluation and Improvement
Wisdom Repository’s administrators and personnel must review, evaluate, develop, and improve policies and standards on regular basis in order for Wisdom Repository to provide continuous long-term service with continuously, efficiently maintained standard service.
13. Data Evacuation (In Case of a System Change)
Wisdom Repository has always been studying emerging standard file formats by following Information Technology news to prepare and become ready for changes in standards of files that will be used in the future. To preserve the digital information resources, Wisdom Repository also studies new platforms of which the functions can automatically convert a file format to become up to date, as another channel to evacuate the data. Wisdom Repository, however, guarantees the file preservation only if the file is within a warranty period.